Internal Energy of a System
Each substance is associated with a certain amount of energy which depends on its chemical nature, temperature, volume, pressure etc. Thus internal energy of the system is simply the sum of all types of energies associated with the substance in the system. It is denoted by E or U.
The exact measurement of internal energy is not possible so it is measured in terms of Internal energy change.
It depends only upon Temperature (for Ideal gas) Internal energy E’ is a state function hence does not depend upon path or way of process or it depends upon initial and final states only.
For path I: Internal energy change is
For path II: i.e.
- It is an extensive property.
- is measured by using Bomb Calorimeter as follow
M = molar mass; m = Mass of substance; C = Heat capacity of calorimeter; = Rise in temperature
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