According to Nernst’s Distribution law (1891) or Partition law, “When a solute is taken up with two immiscible liquids, in both of which the solute is soluble, the solute distributes itself between the two liquids in such a way that the ratio of its concentration in the two liquid phases is constant at a given temperature provided the molecular state of the distributed solute is same in both the phases”.
Where are the concentrations of the solute in two phases. is called distribution coefficient or partition coefficient.
(A) When solute undergoes association in one of the solvents, we have
Where ‘n’ =order of association.
(B) When solute undergoes dissociation, we have
Where = on degree of dissociation.
(C) When solute is to be extracted from solution by another suitable solvent, we have.
Amount left unextracted =
Where ‘W’ =Initial amount present in solution, ‘V’ =volume of solution, volume of extracting solvent, = Distribution coefficient, ‘n’ = Number of extraction operations.
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