States of Matter

States of Matter:

Physically matter exists in three states. They are : solid , liquid and the gaseous sates.

Many times Liquid and gaseous states are also collectively called fluid state.


Solid substances are rigid , possess a definite shape and their volume varies very less with the variance or change in temperature and pressure.

Or , solids have a fixed shape , size and volume. Liquids are slightly compressible and for practical purpose have a definite volume.

But liquids don’t have any fixed shape , They take the shape of the container on which the liquid is kept.

Gases are readily compressible and can expand infinitely. Hence a substance in gaseous state takes both the shape and volume of it’s container.


In almost all cases it is possible to transform a substance in one physical state into another physical states.

For example , by the application of Heat , solids can be converted into liquids and liquid can be further transferred info gas if more heat is applied.

And just reverse happens on cooling.


The states of matter and their transformation is depicted in the following picture more clearly:

states of matter

states of matter


The example of transformation of a substance from one physical state to another is: When water in the form of ice takes up heat energy , it melts into liquids state ,

and when liquid water is heated it changes into the gaseous state. These changes takes place in the reverse direction when the heat energy is removed or the substance is cooled.

Any substance which can exist in the gaseous state can be liquefied and solidified under suitable conditions of temperature and pressure.


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