Types of Overlapping

Types of overlapping

(i) S-S overlapping: overlapping between s-s orbital’s of two similar or dissimilar atoms is known as s-s overlapping and forms a single covalent bond.


(ii) S-P overlapping: overlapping between s- and p –orbital’s is known as s-p overlapping. NH_3 is formed by the overlapping between 3 orbital’s of nitrogen (p_x, p_y \text{and} p_z) with 3 orbital’s of 3 hydrogen atoms (s).

_7N = 1s^2 2s^2 2p^1_x 2p^1_y 2p^1_z \\ _1H = 1s^1


Strong bond can be formed only when hydrogen electrons approache in the direction of X, Y and Z axes at right angles to each other.

(iii) P-P overlapping: p-p overlapping is produced by the overlapping of the p-orbitals of the atoms. In the case of chlorine molecule, it is produced by the overlapping of the 3p_z orbitals of two chlorine atoms.

_{17}Cl = 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p_x^2 3p^2_y 3p^1_z


Formation of Cl2 molecule by overlapping of p-p-orbitals of two chlorine atoms.

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