Types of Solutions

The solutions may be classified on the basis of solubility. The extent to which a solute dissolves in a solvent to form a saturated solution is a measure of solubility.

It depends upon:

(a)    Nature of solute and solvent

(b)   Temperature

(c)    Pressure (If gas is a solute)

All solutions containing less amount of solute than the saturated solution at a given temperature are said to be unsaturated solutions. While a solution holding more amount of the solute than the saturated solution at the same temperature is called a super-saturated solution. A solution holding quite small amount of solute than the solvent is called a dilute solution.

Types of Solutions

Solvent + Solute     Example

  1. Solid + Solid        Alloys, stones
  2. Solid + Liquid      Hydrated salts like CuSO_4 .5H_2O
  3. Solid + Gases      Gases in minerals
  4. Liquid + Solid      Sugar in H_2O
  5. Liquid + Liquid    Alcohols in H_2O
  6. Liquid + Gas        Cold drinks or Carbonated wate
  7. Gas + Solid           l2,campos vapours
  8. Gas + Liquid       Steam or water vapours
  9. Gas + Gas           Air

A mixture of two or more solvents which has definite composition and boiling point is called azeotropic mixture or solution, e.g., a mixture of ethyl alcohol (95.57%) and water (4.43%) boils at 78.13^0C and alcohol, benzene and water mixture boils at 68.4^0C

Colligative Properties: The properties which depend upon the number of molecules (or ions) and not on their neture are called colligative properties such as relative lowering in vapour pressure, osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression in freezing point.

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