What is E-mail?

The concept of global village is the gift of Information technology. The world is wrapped in it and tightens to mush that its shape become very small. The distance of thousands of thousand Km can be covered in a fraction of seconds via internet. Internet is the integrated part of all the organizations as well as individuals.

It is not only important at the time of preparation of examination for students, but also important at the time of job searching, and when you are in job, it is important for skill development. The e-mail is a process of sending/ receiving documents from source to destination through Internet.


1. E-mail


E-mail, videotext, and facsimile are office-automation devices. These are needs of modern and sophisticated office. The knowledge of these devices is essentials for all the employees of concerned organizations.

In March, 1982, the British Telecom lunched its trial of electronic mail system. Electronic mail has changed the way people work and communicate. Millions of end users now dependent on electronic mail (e-mail) to send and receive electronic message. E-mail is a feature of Internet to exchange electronic mail with people around the world. It is an efficient, cost effective, reliable way of message exchange through Internet. It is much faster than old- fashioned mail called “snail-mail”.


SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocols): is used to pass mail between computer and Internet.


MIME (Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extension): MIME is an e-mail program used to attach binary files to mail. Binary files include pictures, graphics, sound, music, animations and videos.


How it Work?


Just as a letter makes stops at different postal stations along its way, e-mail passes from one computer, known as a mail server, to another as it travels over the Internet. Once it arrives at the destination mail server, it’s stored in an electronic mailbox until the recipient retrieves it. This whole process can take seconds, allowing you to quickly communicate with people around the world at any time of the day or night.

Sending and Receiving Messages


To receive e-mail, you must have an account on a mail server. This is similar to having an address where you receive letters. One advantage over regular mail is that you can retrieve your e-mail from anywhere location. Once you connect to your mail server, you download your messages to your computer.

To send e-mail, you need a connection to the Internet and access to a mail server that forwards your mail. The standard protocol used for sending Internet e-mail is called SMTP, short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It works in conjunction with POP servers. POP stands for Post Office Protocol.

When you send an e-mail message, your computer routes it to an SMTP server. The server looks at the e-mail address (similar to the address on an envelope), then forwards it to the recipient’s mail server, where it is stored until the addressee retrieves it. You can send email anywhere in the world to anyone who has an e-mail address. Remember, almost all Internet service providers and all major online services offer at least one e-mail address with every account.


E-mail Address


E-mail address has two parts separated by @.

  • User Name: It is written before @. It denotes person’s account.
  • Domain Name: It is written after the @. It has many parts and each part is separated by period (.). The blank spaces ate not allowed in e-mail address. The last few characters denote organization or country.


Admin@yahoo.com, where admin is a recipient’s e-mail name and yahoo.com is a internet domain were recipient has mailbox.

















Au Australia
Ca Canada
Jp Japan
Us United States
Np Nepal
In India



The e-mail message format contains:

1. Header: To and from address

2. Body: Main part of mailing documents

3. Blank Line: is used to separate head and body

The Eudora, Yahoo mail, Netscape Communicators and the Microsoft Outlook Express are very popular software for e-mail. In market, several software’s are lunched for e-mail and many are vanished from market per year.



  • Low cost: The most cost effective
  • High speed: A message can travels around a world in a second.
  • Easy to use: The software used for e-mail has user-friendly interface, so user can send a message in a single mouse clicks.
  • Maintenance: The coming and going mails are maintained effectively because incoming mail is saved automatically.
  • Waste Reduction: Generally, it is free from garbage.


2. E-Mail Software


There are several e-mail software available in market, but most popular amongst them is Microsoft Outlook Express. Some people use Eudora for e-mail purpose. There are the important parts for e-mai1:

Hardware: Computer, modem, Internet Connection

Software: Email Software (Outlook Express, Eudora etc)

E-mail Address, Message etc



  • Open Outlook Express
  • Open file menu File>New> Mail Message
  • Type e-mail address in e-mail address box
  • Type subject in Subject box.
  • Type Message in Message Box. The message box is a message editing box in which your message are typed.
  • Click to Send tool (File > Send Message)
Microsoft Outlook Express

Microsoft Outlook Express


Attachment of File


The audio, video, graphics, greeting cards, and other essential documents are sent from source to destination through e-mail. For this purpose, new desired files are attached to the e-mail documents.


  • Click to message box
  • Insert > File attachment
  • Select desired files and click Attach.

In this way your desired files are attached to e-mail documents. This process is very effective if you have to send your bio-data, educational documents, photo etc.


4. Videotex


Videotex is computers based interactive information service provided over phone lines or cable TV channels to access and selectively view text and graphics. End users can select specific video display of data and information, such as electronic Yellow pages and Personal bank checking accounts registers. There are three parties involved in the use of such systems. Firstly, there is the customer who needs to posses a television receiver with a special coding/decoding unit, a telephone set and an extra unit known as the modem along with an acoustic coupler.

The modem is crucial unit in the videotext chain. It is a special electronic unit which converts binary digits or electric logic levels into audio tones which can pass through the telephone lines. These tones must have frequencies which lie within the 300 to 3,400 Hz bandwidth which telephone circuits can safely handle. Modems were originally designed to link one computer with another over telephone lines. Next come to Telephone Company which provides a conduit (medium) for the customer to reach the information source. The final partner in the chain is the database organizations who have one or many computers to hold the information.



5. Facsimile


Facsimile (fax) is not a new office telecommunication service. However, advances in digital imaging technology and microelectronics have caused a sharp drop in prices and a significant increase in capabilities. Usually a fax machine at one office location transmits to a fax machine at another location, with both units connected to high-speed modems. Transmission speeds for digital office fax machine ranges from one to four pages per minute, with quality equivalent to an office copier.

Facsimile methods are used for transmission of weather charts, engineering drawings, printed messages and even handwritten notes to remote receivers. Fax differs qualitatively from other forms of communication. Telex provides a typewritten message at its destination.

Fax on the other hand, transfer copies of any type of documents-written in any language and in any script. The copy obtained by the receiver in an extra replica of original document including signatures. FAX can transmit a document in two minutes.

Fax equipment employs a photo-scanning process to obtain its electrical signals. A light beam scans the image of the documents line by line. The reflected light levels are then converted into equivalent electrical signals which are transmitted over the communicational channels. The electrical signals are in the binary format with only two levels: black or white.

An objective lens produces a reduced image of the document on a straight line array of silicon sensors or photocells. Light shines on these photocell and induces a current to flow through them. Every photocell is sampled in turn by a switching mechanism to produce a serial digital signal. Different portions of the document are focused on the array of photocells. In this manner, the image of the entire document is scanned and a series of electrical signals is formed. In effect, it is the brightness levels, which are converted into digital signals.

Related posts:

  1. [How to] Send free Password protected E-mail E-mail is a process of exchanging digital message from on...
  2. Windows IP utilities Here are some IP utilities available in Microsoft’s windows operating...
  3. Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 IPv6 stands for Internet protocol version 6. Ipv6 is a...
  4. C++ Program Using Structure A structure can be said as, the collection of  datas...
  5. Structure in C++ Structure in C++ Structure is a collection of simple variables...