Information Technology

IT is not just slogan, but name of new revolution in communication technology. In this decade, only three revolutions are remarkable in mankind history: population, pollution, and communication. IT is the very hot word in the context of modern computer society where computer is the hub of all activities. Information systems use people, hardware, software, communication networks, and data management resources and technology to collect, transform, and disseminate information in an organization.

IT (Information Technology) is the technologies of modern computer based information systems. It is a major force for organizational and managerial change. Thanks to telecommunications networks and personal computers, computing power and information recourses are now more readily available to more managers than ever before.

Components of IT:


The main components of IT are meaningful information, people at destination, software, hardware and networking technologies.

(a) People: People are present behind of every objective. The IT is for organization, and organization for people.

(b)Networks: The network is most important components of IT. It is a medium through information transmitted to destination. For IT, highest speed networking is required for fast data transfer.

(c) Data: Data are object of information which is transmitted through networks. Data is transferred from node to nodes. The IT revolves around data (message) like as other computer based systems.

(d) Software: Software is the soul of computer system. The hardware configuration and coordination among the components are controlled by software. Software is a special type of program which is used to input and receive data. The e-mail, browsers, Networking operating systems, presentation packages, multimedia packages, word processors, database packages etc are software used for data transfers.

(e) Hardware: Modems, computers, cables, networking equipment’s etc are hardware needed for IT. Hardware is an important component which set networking configuration and supports software and other accessories.

Features of Information


Organizations have a large appetite for data. Almost every piece of data that reaches an organization gets recorded by someone or the other in ledgers, accounts books, databases, spreadsheets. Data, when organized and interpreted, gives us information. Information is presented as cross tabulations, graphs, statistical coefficients, and so on. In organizations, information is usually stored in spreadsheets, presentations etc. The term information is very exiting term in itself. When this term is used peoplethink “what type of information?” The information is the building block of knowledge, and knowledge builds particular faculty. In this manner, new dimensions are added in the education system.

In beginning, only term ‘information’ is broadly used in business organization, but when new term ‘technology’ is added to it, it is converted into separate faculty which is the need of every faculties.

There are two broad types of knowledge-tacit and explicit. Explicit knowledge is that which can be formalized easily and as a consequence is easily available across the organization. The written materials in books are an example of explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge, on the other hand, resides in a few often in just one person and hasn’t been captured by the organization or made available to others. It is own managerial and decision making skills of person which are not available on the papers. The management of knowledge is needed for planning of business strategy. Knowledge management systems also help you to locate, contact, and communicate with experts (knowledgeable people) on various subjects, within your organization, or may be even outside.

The Information technology is a marriage of information science with communication. The Information is an accurate, meaningful, and complete set of message. Computer science, engineering, and mathematics are disciplines that contribute to the technological aspect of information system.

  • Availability: Information should be accessible. The ample information is needed for business strategy planning. The reliable source of information is needed to store and process information for managerial uses.
  • Timeliness: Information is a time critical objects so in time access and collection is needed. The timeliness depends on the nature and structure of organization. If the organization is information processing systems like as daily newspapers publishing company, the timeliness become very critical.
  • Accuracy: The accuracy is the one of the important feature of information. The accurate information is helpful in successful forecasting plans and company decision-making process. There is a very common terms used in computer  ”garbage in, garbage out”. If our input is garbage, it is sure that output must be garbage. So, accurate information is foundation stone for organization. The successful organizations are based on accuracy of information.
  • Completeness: Incomplete information id hazardous for the credit of organization and any other systems.
  • Meaningful: The information should be complete and meaningful. If information is ambiguous, it can create uncertainly and complexity. Many management teachers give example to explain meaningfulness of information ”A Sleepless night, birth gives to child”. A young engineer had sent this message to his parents. The ambiguity in information had disturbed parents to think how birth would give birth of child.
  • Preciseness (brevity): The information should be accurate, complete, and précised. In this IT era, people have no enough times to study voluminous information, so complete and brief information is preferred.
  • Surprise value: The surprise value is also feature of information. The information should be out of traditional tracks to attract more and more audiences. This type of information is more valuable for newspapers.


Type of Information:


Information is always information either legal or illegal. If information is illegal, it becomes propaganda and headache for authorities, and legal information knocks the door of success.

There are four types of information:

(a) Strategic Information: This is the information needed for long range planning and directing the course the business should take. The store owner may like, for example, to decide whether to expand his business by stocking new varieties of items in his store, whether to work on a small profit margin to expand sales, whether to open a new branch etc.

(b) Tactical Information: This type of information is needed to take short range decisions to run the business efficiently. For instances, the information on fast and slow moving items may be used to take the tactical decision to stock more of the former and give discount on the latter.

(c) Operational Information: This type of information is needed for day to day operations of a business organization. For instances, the list of items out of stock on a particular day would be used to trigger the action.

(cl) Statutory Information: Information and reports which are required by law to be sent to government authorities are normally clearly specified and required straight-ward processing of data.

The management structure is a pyramid. In this pyramid the chief executive, being overall in charge of policy, will require strategic information. The middle level managers require tactical information to perform their function and the line managers being responsible for day-to day operations would require operational information.

Organization and Information Technology


The IT is designed for organization and organizations are established to accomplish some certain objectives for people. In this the people, tasks, technology, culture, and structure of any organization are foundation stones of IT.

(a) People: Managers are individuals with variety of preferences for information and diverse capabilities for effectively using information provided to them. Information systems must produce information products tailored to meet managers’ individual needs, as management information, decision support, and executive information systems can do.

Organization and Information

Organization and Information Technology

(b)Tasks: The tasks of many organizations have become quite complex and inefficient over time. In many case, information technology has been used “to do the same old thing, only fast”. IT  can play a major role in fighting organizational complexity by supporting the reengineering of business process.

(c) Technology: The technology of computer-based information systems continues to grow more sophisticated and complex. However, this technology should not dictate the information needs of end users in the performance of their organizational tasks.

(d) Culture: Organizations and their subunits have a culture which is share by managers and other employees. That is, they have unique set of organizational values and styles.

(e)Structure: IT must be able to support more decentralized, collaborative types of organizational structure, which needs more interconnected client/ server networks, distributed databases, “downsizes” computers, and systems development resources distributed to business unit and work group levels.


# E-commerce



The e-commerce stands for electronic commerce. It is an online activity of business without going to a store. The e-commerce is a global phenomena of marketing in which tangible and intangible services are offered through internet.

It is an internet business. E-commerce is a modern term that describes the ever growing and expanding online economy. Since the internet began, thousands upon thousands of new companies have come into existence and are trading goods and services electronically. The e-commerce business may be for products sold directly to the consuming public or be sold directly to other business involved in e-commerce. This portion of the industry is commonly called B2B, which means business to business commerce.

Thousands of e-stores now thrive on the WEB, providing people with a way to purchase goods and services electronically. For small businesses, the internet can deliver a global market. Depending on which survey you believe, that may be more than 950 million people worldwide who use the internet. On a typical day, an estimated 61 million Americans go online. If the demographics of the online community match your customer profile, that’s a lot potential new business. While the promise is there, challenges loom large.


(a) Business to Business:

  • Selling and buying process, online business
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): business to business exchange of data.
  • The security of business transactions

(b) Business to Customers:

  • The orders taken thought own web site
  • E-tailing (Electronic Retailing) or virtual storefronts on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a virtual mail
  • The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts.
  • E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers(for example, with newsletters)

(c) Digital Middle Man: A huge collection of information about products of different companies.


The benefits of e-commerce:


E-commerce is not for organization, but also customers and societies. It is a new way of business transaction to increase sale amongst customers.

(a) Benefits to Organization

  • E-commerce extends the market place to national and international market.
  • It decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing and retrieving paper based information.
  • Ability for creating highly specialized businesses.
  • It reduces the time between the outlay of capital and receipt of product and services.
  • It initiates business processing re-engineering projects.
  • It lowers telecommunication costs.
  • Other benefits includes improved image, improved customer service, new found business partners, simplified processors, compressed cycle and delivery time, increased productivity, eliminating papers, expanding access to information, reduced transportation cost and increased flexibility.

(b) Benefits to Customers:

  • E-commerce enables customers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours a day, all year around from almost a location.
  • It provides customers with more choice; they can select from many venders and from more products.
  • It allows customers to interact with other customers in electronic communities and exchange ideas as well as compare experiences.
  • It facilitates competition, which results in substantial discounts.

(c) Benefits to Society:

  • E-commerce more individuals to work at home and to do less traveling for shopping, resulting in less traffic on the roads and lower air pollution.
  • It enables people in third world countries and rural areas to enjoy products and services that otherwise are not available to them.
  • It facilitates delivery public services.
  • It allows some merchandise to be sold at lower prices, so less affluent people can buy more and increase their standard of living.

The limitations of e-commerce


  • There is a lack of system security, reliability, standard and some communication protocols.
  • There is insufficient telecommunication band width.
  • The software development tools are still evolving and changing rapidly.
  • It is difficult to integrate the electronic commerce software with some existing applications and databases.
  • Vendors may need special web servers and other infrastructure in addition to network servers.
  • Some of e-commerce software may not fit with some hardware or may be incompatible with some OS or other components.

E-commerce and society


The e-commerce is a talk of every town. In many universities, the diploma and degree are designed in e-commerce like as diploma in e-commerce, B.Sc. (e-commerce) etc.

  • Business Sectors: The business organizations arrange questionnaire and collect views of customers about products. The advertisement, employment, communication, order taking and supply-done through computer.
  • Advertising: If you’ve spent any time online, you’ve undoubtedly seen advertisements plastered all over the Web. The large and small companies pay for ad banners and links to their websites from other search engines and other websites. Advertising rates vary wildly, depending on the site and its audience.
  • Customer side: The customer’s order for products without leaving chair. The order is received through Internet (e-mail) and products are delivered at door steps.
  • Education: The education is also offered Online. Many degree and diploma courses are available Online. The Internet and e-mail, both are boon for students and Universities. We are always in contact with universities through Internet.

Payment systems for e-commerce


Every market transaction is two legged: it has a payment leg and delivery leg. When the transaction is negotiated and agreed between buyer and seller, agreed monetary value(price in cash or no cash system) has to transferred to seller, upon receiving of agreed price, goods and services are delivered to buyers.

Payment system for e-commerce

Payment system for e-commerce

There are many instruments for payment: Smart cards, Credit cards, debit cards etc. These cards are specific and most popular in the world of e-commerce.

(a) Smart Card: It is a type of chip card embedded with computer processor or computer memory. The inside of smart card, usually contains 16 bits microprocessor. Its average RAM capacity is 8KB, ROM of 346KB, and programmable ROM of 256KB. This card is equipped with all necessary functions and information. It provides vital components of system security for the exchange of data through virtually any type of network. It protects against a full range of security threats, from careless storage of user passwords to sophisticated system hacks. The smart card readers can also be found in mobile phones and vending machines.

(b) Credit Cards: A credit card is a financial instrument, which can be used more than once to borrow money or buy goods and services on credit. Banks, retail stores and other business organization issue these. It is also ideal for use in emergencies, when you have not cash on hand to pay for an immediate necessity. American Express, Citi, China UnionPay, Diners Club (introduced first universal credit card in 1950), Discover, JCB, MasterCard, VISA etc are organization which issue credit cards.

(c) Debit Cards: It is also electronic card that one can use as a convenient payment mechanism. It is issued by banks and is connected to ATM. It allows spend only what is in your account and purchases should be kept track of just as if you’re writing a cheque. It frees you from carrying cash or a cheque book.

The HDFC Bank International Debit Card is available to their customers in Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, and Ahmedabad. It can be used over 235 ATMs in India and over 530,000 ATMs across the globe.


# M-commerce


It is a new branch of e-commerce and called mobile commerce. All business activities while on the go, using mobile devices. It is a next generation e-commerce will allow the trading of goods online through wireless handheld devices. It is conducted through mobile phones, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), Pagers, and other wireless terminals.

What is a WAP?

It stands for Wireless Application Protocol. The WAP is Internet Communication and advanced telephony services on digital mobile phones, pagers, PDA, and other wireless terminals. The WML (Wireless Markup Language) and WML scripts are used to produce WAP contents.


# Electronic meeting system (EMS)



Why do people have to spent travel time and money to attend meetings away from their normal work place? They don’t have to if they use several types of electronic meeting system (EMS), a growing method of electronic office telecommunications. Electronic meeting systems involve the use of video and audio communications to allow conferences and meetings to be held with participants who may be scattered across a room, a building, a country, or the globe.

(a) Computer conferencing: Using online terminals and workstations to conduct conferences among participants at remote sites over a period of time, without the use of interactive video.

(b) Desktop Videoconferencing: Using appropriately equipped end user workstations to hold two-way interactive video conferences.

(c) Decision Room Conferencing: Using a meeting room with a network of workstations and large screen video projection to hold meeting.

(d) Teleconferencing: Using interactive video telecommunications to hold conferences among many participants at remote sites. Teleconferencing also consists of using closed-circuit television to reach multiple small groups, instead of using television broadcasting to reach large group at multiple site. Several major communications carriers and hotel chains now offer teleconferencing services for such events as sales meetings, new product announcements, and employees’ education and training. Teleconferencing uses communications network technology to connect participants’ voices. In many cases, speaker telephones are used for conference calls among the participants. A two-way radio system can also be used. In some remote areas, satellite enhancement of connections is desirable.

A teleconference is a telephone or video meeting between participants in two or more locations. Teleconferences are similar to telephone calls, but they can expand discussion to more than two people. Using teleconferencing in a planning process, members of a group can all participate in a conference with agency staff people.

Video conferencing can transmit pictures as well as voices through video cameras and computer modems. Video conferencing technology is developing rapidly, capitalizing on the increasingly powerful capabilities of computers and telecommunications networks. Video conferencing centers and equipment are available for rent in many locations.




  • Teleconferencing is useful when an issue is State or region wide. The World Bank uses moderated electronic conferences to identify best public involvement practices from front-line staff. The discussion focuses around fleshing out and sharing ideas so that practitioners in different locations can learn from the experiences of others around the world.
  • Teleconferencing helps increase the number of participants. People may be reluctant to travel to a meeting because of weather conditions, poor highway or transit access, neighborhood safety concerns, or other problems. Teleconferencing offers equal opportunity for people to participate, thus allowing more points of view to emerge, revealing areas of disagreement, and enabling people to exchange views and ask questions freely.
  • Teleconferencing is used for training. It opens up training hours and availability of courses for people unable to take specialized classes because of time constraints and travel costs. The National Transit Institute held a nationally broadcast session answering questions about requirements for Federal major investment studies (MIS). Over 1,700 people met at 89 teleconferencing sites to participate in the meeting. Feedback from participants was overwhelmingly in favor of the usefulness and practicality of the session.
  • Teleconferencing is used for networking among transportation professionals on public involvement and other topics. North Carolina State University sponsored a national teleconference on technologies for transportation describing applications of three and four-dimensional computer graphics technologies. They have been found helpful in facilitating public involvement and environmental analysis.

# Computer and Society


The term computer and society is complementary to each other because the existence of one is embedded into other. If computer is removed from society, the society becomes dead. All the human activities have great influences of computers. The computer and society form IT society. The progresses of countries are measured on the basis of Information technologies. If development of IT is at climax, the country is also at the point of climax of progress. Now a day, IT is oxygen without it individual as well as organizations cannot grow smoothly. Ray Kurzweil, an AI pioneer, poses a though provoking questions, “By the year 2004, in accordance with Moore’s law, your state-of-the-art personal computer will be able to simulate a society of 10,000 human brains, each of which would be operating at a speed of 10,000 times faster than a human brain.”


Advantage of IT:


Information technology is not only hot talk of your city, but it is globally hot concept in communication.

  • Employment: The computer science has opened many probabilities for present and future employments. Now a day, world is computerized and computer become essential requirements for human. There can be no doubt that the use of information technology has created new jobs and increased productivity.
  • Automated Production: IT increases productivity and quality of products. In much business organization old and time-consuming machines are replaced by fast machine monitored by computer. In large factories, all the dangerous tasks are handled and controlled through computer (robots).
  • E-Commerce: The on-line business transaction is called e-commerce or e-business. The e-commerce is a technique in which manufactures and customers bargains on line without leaving computer. The future of e-commerce is integrated with Internet. People can control every business activities on line without expensing moneys and time to visit one place to other place. All the customers, products, salesmen, and business transactions can be performed effectively and efficiently through Internet.
  • Telecommuting: Telecommuting is the use of telecommunications by workers to replace computing to work from the homes. It is also used to describe the use of telecommunication to carry on work activities from temporary locations other than offices and homes. Workers use a computer terminal or microcomputer with telecommunication capability to access their company’s computer networks and database.
  • Image Processing: It allows end users to electronically capture, store, process, and retrieve images of documents that may include numeric data, text, handwriting, graphics, and photographs. Electronic Document Management (EDM) is based on image processing technology. Image processing is also widely used in film and television animation and special effects.
  • Multimedia presentation: Information technology is enabling multimedia presentation for training employees, educating customers, making sales presentations, and adding impact to other business presentation. Multimedia methods of presentation give end users information in a variety of media, including text and graphics displays, voice and other digitized audio, photographs, and video.
  • Data Integrity and security: Data integrity and security are used together in computer world, but both are slightly different from each other. Data security is the protection of data from loss, disclosure, modification and destruction. Data integrity makes sure that data do not differ from their original form and have not been accidentally or intentionally disclosed, altered, or destroyed. The computer systems help to protect data from unauthorized access. There are many technologies developed for data integrity and security. Now a day, data are safer than some years before.
  • Fast Service: IT provides fast services in all the sectors of business. The on line reservation of hotels, tickets (railways, airplane) etc are possible due to IT. Electronic fund transfer (EFT) allows you to pay money by transferring computer signals over wires and telephone lines. Most EFT systems use a plastic card. Bank cash machines often use a card with a personal identification number (PIN) encoded on it.
  • Safeguarding the citizens: The safeguarding of citizens from cybercrimes are problems in many countries. The issue of data privacy, integrity and security etc are major problem area in the field of computer-based database systems. In 1973, Sweden government had passed data act for safeguarding of citizens from cybercrime.
  • Health care: There are many expert systems to guide physicians and surgeons. HELP, MYCIN, PUFF etc are well-known expert systems. HELP is an expert system used to diagnose heart diseases, and PUFF is designed to diagnose lungs diseases. On line medical facilities are also available for patients. Many medical types of equipment are computer based. The special types of trainings are required to operate computer-based equipment’s. CAT (Computerized Axial Topography), PET (Position Emission Tomograph), MRI (Magnetic Resource Imaging), CT scan machine, Ultra Sonography equipment, ENT (Eye Neck Throat) testers are computer based equipment’s used in health care. Video conferencing is employed in medical science called Tele-medicine.
  • Education: IT and education is integrated terms in modern context. IT has provided education on door steps. Instructions that take place when the students and instructors are separated by physical space and/or time is motive of Open University or on line education. The concept of distance education, on-line education, information about admissions, examinations, and other courses are available on Internet.
  • On-line games: With the Internet craze sweeping through the world, it would be quite unlikely for games to not make their presence felt in this network. Games are among the share-ware and free offered on the net.
  • Animation and film: The IT provides very sophisticated tools for film and animation. The sound editors, video editors, animators, graphic packages are available on line for designing. The Mickey Mouse, Animal Farm, The Flintstones, Toy story, Beauty and the Beast, TRON (by Disney Production, 1982), Bug’s life, Jurassic Park( by Steven Spielberg, 1992) etc are world famous animation film in which many graphics artists have devoted creative power to present smooth animations. There are many software available for animation works like as Adobe After Effect, Adobe Image ready, Corel Photo Paint, macromedia Director, Flash etc. The basic ideas behind all the software are to design several frames and load these frames for animation.

Disadvantage of IT:


Computer crime, health problems, and phobia of job termination- these three are serious disadvantages in computer society. IT is boon, but it also causes some ill effects on physical, mental, and social dimension of life. We know that every object casts its shadow, so it has also shadow parts for our society. Computer is a growing threat by the criminal or irresponsible actions of a small minority of computer professionals and users who are taking advantage of the widespread use of computers and information technology in our society. It thus presents a major challenge to the ethical use of IT. Computer crime also poses serious threats to the security of computer-based information systems and makes the development of effective control methods a top priority.

(a) Social Impact: Human are gregarious by nature but due to computer and e-commerce concept they can get everything at door step by on line service. If he/ she have no time for society, adaptation in society becomes troublesome. So, person are cut from main stream of society and compelled to lead monotonous life.

(b) Unemployment: When computers are installed in organizations, only few expert employees are needed and rest are terminated from jobs. So, it creates unemployment also. If any person who is terminated from his job, socially he/ she become victim of inferiority complex.

(c) Privacy: Information technology makes it technically and economically feasible to collect, store, integrate, interchange, and retrieve data and information quickly and easily. Confidential information on individuals contained in centralized computer databases by credits bureaus, government agencies, and private business firms has been stolen and misused, resulting in the invasion of privacy, fraud, and other injustices. The unauthorized use of such information has seriously damaged the privacy of individuals. Errors in such database could seriously hurt the credit standing or reputation of individuals.

(d) Health Problem: The use of IT in the workplace raises a variety of health issues. Heavy use of computers is reportedly causing health problems like job stress, damaged arms and neck muscles, eye strain, radiation exposures, and even death by computer caused accidents. For example, computer monitoring is blamed as a major cause of computer-related job stress. People who sit at PC workstations or visual display terminals (VDTs) in fast paced, repetitive keystroke jobs can suffer a variety of health problems known as collectively as cumulative trauma disorder (DTDs). Their fingers, wrists, arms, necks, and backs may become so weak and painful that they cannot work. Many times strained muscles, back pain, nerve damage may result. In particular, some computer workers may suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome, a painful, crippling ailment of the hand and wrist that, typically, requires surgery to cure.

(e) Money Theft: Many computer crimes involve the theft of money. The frequently involve fraudulent alteration of computer files to cover the tracks of the thieves, or to swindle money from others based on falsified records. For example, in the famous Volkswagen AG case of 1987, a group of company executives altered computerized foreign exchange accounting files to hide their theft of almost $253 million.

(f) Service theft: The unauthorized use of computer system is called service theft. A common example is unauthorized use of company-owned microcomputers by employees. This may range from doing private consulting or personal finances to playing video games.

(g) Software Theft: Computer programs are valuable assets and thus are the subject of theft from computer systems. However, unauthorized copying of software, or software piracy, is also a major form of software theft. Several major cases involving the unauthorized copying of software have been widely reported. Unauthorized copying is illegal because software is intellectual property that is protected by copyright law and user licensing agreements.

(h) Data Alteration: Making illegal change to data is another form of computer crime. For example, an employee of the University of Southern California was convicted of taking payments from students and changing their grades in return.

(i) Destruction of Data and Software: One of the most destructive examples of computer crime involves the creation of computer viruses or worms. Virus is more popular term which replicates itself and damage com and exe extension files.


# E-banking


The banking is not new term, but electronic banking or online banking (internet banking) is new for us. It is a payment instruments for e-commerce and m-commerce. There are many banks in the world engaged in electronic banking to support e-commerce. It is known as home banking or PC banking also. The term brick-to- click banking is also used for it. Now a day, concept of banking is also changed according to change in trade. The e-banking is a method achieving bank facilities online through browser. Most of the bank has its own websites with ample information about banking system and transactions. In this way we can say that e-banking is a banking to access bank information, account access and reviews, transfer of funds between eligible account, bill payment etc.



Advantage of e-banking:


  • Convenience: It is 24 hours available for customers’ service. It is never closed, only mouse click is needed to access bank.
  • Ubiquity: The banking facilities are available everywhere even you are out of the country.
  • Transaction speed: Online bank sites generally execute and confirm transactions quicker than ATM processing speed.
  • Efficiency: It is more secure and efficient than traditional banking because without leaving chair only some mouse clicks manage your bank accounts, including IRAs, CDs, even securities, from one secure site.
  • Effectiveness: Many online banking sites now offer sophisticated tools, including account aggregation, stock quotes, rate alerts and portfolio managing programs to help you manage all of your assets more effectively. Most are also compatible with money managing programs such as Quicken and Microsoft Money.

Disadvantage of e-banking:


  • Start-up may take time: In order to register for your bank’s online program, you will probably have to provide ID and sign a form at a bank branch. If you and your spouse wish to view and manage your assets together online, one of you may have to sign a durable power of attorney before the bank will display all of your holdings together.
  • Learning curve: Banking sites can be difficult to navigate at first, because first time technical problems and confusions create hurdle in proper operation.
  • Bank site changes: Bank sites are upgraded periodically, and sites are also changed. It becomes hurdle for customers. Some customer are familiarized to operate specific sites, when the sites are changed, they get problems in operation of sites.
  • The trust thing: For many people, the biggest hurdle to online banking is learning to trust it. Did my transaction go through? Did I push the transfer button once or twice? Many people have technical confusion at the time of online banking.

#Visual Communication


Visual Communication offers a high quality forum of publication for articles on the crucial visual dimension of language and communication. It is a branch of IT in which illustration of information is a key point. It is a creative branch of IT in which art and philosophy is applied to arouse psychological stimulation in observers. This figure illustrates itself, what it has? The face is the index of mind. The face expresses inner most feelings of human. The visual communication is a pose and posture based presentation to illustrate objects. There is a very famous Chinese saying: “The picture worth’s, thousand words”. The world famous philosopher Aristotle has expressed his concepts about visual communication:

“There can be no words without images”.

Educational psychologist Jerome Bruner of New York University cites studies that show persons only remember ten percent of what they hear, 30 percent of what they read, but about 80 percent of what they see and do.

When all members of society whether at home, in school and on the job learn to use computers for word and picture processing, the switch will be made from passive watching to active using. There will no longer be the barrier between the two symbolic structures. Words and pictures will become one, powerful and memorable mode of visual communication.

There are strong indications that the status of images is improving. We live in a mediated blitz of images. They fill our newspapers, magazines, books, clothing, billboards, computer monitors and television screens as never before in the history of mass communications. Something is happening. We are becoming a visually mediated society. For many, understanding of the world is being accomplished, not through reading Words, but by reading images. Philosopher Hanno Hardt warns that the television culture is replacing words as the important factor in social communication. Shortly, words will be reserved for only bureaucratic transactions through business forms and in books that will only be read by a few individuals. Reading is losing to watching because viewing requires little mental processing.

Visual messages, with their own rules of syntax, are being read, but this language means nothing to those who can only read words. The visual communication is a mode of communication through the visual arts. The film is the strong means of visual messaging.

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