People pay their bills; book airline tickets and hotel rooms; rent, sell and buy homes, cars, education, interviews, marriage negotiation… and do a lot more online. Almost all businesses and totally every government branches of the Fed, states and local levels do have opportunity to communicate online.


By this way our society becomes incomparable more dynamic, raises its productivity and becomes more vulnerable one as well. The concept of e-commerce, multimedia, virtual reality, animation, artificial intelligence etc are part of information technology.

The multimedia is a combined form of text, graphics, audio, video media. The concept and implementation of multimedia is revolutionary steps in the field of computer science. The multimedia includes all types of digital information with high resolution of color and pleasing intensity of sound.


—>> Application of multimedia:


The multimedia is a very dynamic media of representation. It is applied in business, government agency, school, and home.


(a) Education: The interactive CD for science, mathematics, biology, computer and other subject are available. So, it is important for all types of educational institutions. The concept of distance learning is based on computer. Some Universities provides multimedia CD to their enrolled students. The CD contains study materials, audio-video materials, sometimes impossible in lecturer hall.

Multimedia-simulated operations are common amongst medical students, where they operate on virtual patients.

The student of engineering study circuit diagrams, build model of machines, building etc through multimedia.


(b) Training: The school, colleges, business organization etc use video clips, slide show etc to trained manpower’s. The driving, engineering process, airplane and spacecraft lunching, monitoring and controlling etc are done in virtual model through multimedia. There are many organizations that offer multimedia kits for preparation of service commissions, qualifying examination for MBA, MCA etc.


(c) Entertainment: It is a medium of entertainment in home and office. The multimedia kits of game are available in market. Some amusement arcades offer multimedia games that allow player to race Indy cars or fight with enemies. Multimedia kits provide the audio-video facilities. You can enjoy national as well as foreign films, music etc in your chair.


(d) Advertisement: It helps in advertisement of products for business organization. The concept of e-commerce is not only needed for online purchasing, but advertises products amongst Internet users.


(e) Presentation: It is a strong medium of presentation of graphs, reports, and any other materials. The business organization, training centers, learning all depend on effective presentation. There are many tools and techniques developed to develop presentation kits. Mail-order business provides multimedia catalogue that allow prospective buyers to browse virtual showrooms.


—>> Multimedia building block


The multimedia is a platform where text, graphics, sound, and animation interact with each other’s. So, text, color, sound, graphics, animation, and movies are known as multimedia building block. The multimedia designing is a high quality creative work.


(a) Color: The perception of color is a complex neuropsychological process. The color plays an important part in multimedia design. Actually, color is composed by wavelength and different colors combination of different wavelengths. It has physical and psychological effects on human behaviors. The light is needed to see colors, so we can say that color is light. The white color of the sun beam is composed by seven different lights.

Red, green, and blue is called primary colors and secondary colors are composed by combination of two primary colors The color is not only painting medium, but it is also very strong medium of expression of emotions, mood, behaviors, thought, and so on. The appropriate choice of color is first step of successes in the field of multimedia. The combination of red and blue produce magenta. The magenta is secondary color, because it is produced by combination of two primary colors. In this way, yellow (red green), and cyan (green blue) are produced. When all the primary colors are combined, white light is produced.

Generally, primary colors are suitable for lighting, videos, and monitors. The warm, cool, light, dark, vivid, and dull are category of colors.

  • Warm and cool colors are actual color. The warm colors are bright, splashy, and aggressive. These colors have more power of attraction and excitement of emotion than other colors. The cool colors are opposite to warm colors.
  • Light and dark colors refer to shade. It is determined by amount of light and darkness in color. The light shades of any color look soft and ethereal, but dark shades seem strong and solid.
  • Vivid and dull refers to the vividness or intensity of color.


(b) Graphics: The .gif, .jpg, .png, .bmp (Window bitmap file) formats are used for animation. GIF format is developed by CompuServe Inc. in 1980. In 1990, it is accepted as the best graphic format for web. It uses a relatively basic form of file compression (Lempel Zev Welch or, LZW) that squeezes out inefficiencies in the data storage without losing data or distorting image. The JPEG is the product of Joint Photographic Expert Groups. It supports 8-bit gray scale and color depth up to-32 bits CYMK.

It has huge compression ratios mean faster download speed. It produces excellent result for most photographs and complex image and supports full color (24-bit,”true color”) image. The PNG format stands for Portable Network Graphics. This format was developed by consortium of graphic software developers as a nonproprietary alternative to GIF image format. The PNG-8, PNG-24 etc available in the market.


(c) Animation: The term animation is used for object which can show movement on the computer screen like as animals. The animation is derived from verb animate which is meant to behave like as animal. The main concept of animation is a persistence of vision. The eyes cannot distinguish differences of images when they are passed in 1/10 second.

When 10 different images are displayed in sequence one after one in 1 second, eyes cannot find out differences among them. This concept is key ideas behind animation. In animation, a sequence of images is used to display continuously. The each individual image of sequence is called frames. Generally, movies use 24 frames per second for video effect. The combined effect of images, animations and audio is called multimedia.


(i)  2D Animation: The two dimensional images are animated. This is a simple type of animations because 2D graphics package is used to design images per frame. The 2D animation is also called vector animation.

The Macromedia Flash, Macromedia Director and many other software are available for vector animation work. It is important for TV Cartoon designing, interactive interface designing for web, advertisement and many other graphics and animation fields.

(ii) 3D Animation: The three dimensional images are animated and caste realistic effects to observer. The 3D graphics packages are used to draw images per frame. 3D animation is rendered in a virtual three-dimensional space, using polygons captured by various cameras to film the animation.

It has a variety of applications, from video games to animated films; most commonly, 3D animation is used to render many of special effects seen in live action films, removing sets or staged stunts.


—>> Animation in Film Industry


The film Industry is place where most of the multimedia and animation experts are employed. The animation is employed in two large activities:

  • Special Effect: The computer is applied for special effects like as transaction of written information. The hurricane, earthquake, accident, burning of building, flood, murders, ghosts etc are designed easily through computer. The mosquito can be shown larger and heavier than elephant using special computer graphics effects. Now a day, more than 90% films are based on computer special effects because risky jobs of stunt men are replaced by computer.


  • Cartoon films: In cartoons films, more and more frames are designed by artists and animated using multimedia kits. In the film industry, there are many cartoon films available like as Jurassic parks. The cartoon films are designed by graphics artists frame by frame. The Mickey Mouse, Animal Farm, The Flintstones, Toy story, Beauty and the Beast, TRON (by Disney Production, 1982), Bug’s life, Jurassic Park (by Steven Spielberg, 1992) etc are world famous animation film in which many graphics artists have devoted creative power to present smooth animations. For web designing, the professional touch is impossible without animations. You can design animated banners, buttons, and graphics for web. There are many software are available for animation works like as Adobe After effect,  Adobe Image ready, Corel Photo Paint, macromedia Director, Flash etc. The basic ideas behind all the software are to design several frames and load these frames for animation.


  • Sound: The human body responds to five basic stimuli and one of them is sound. From time immemorial, man has been creating music, which, like man, has evolved with the passage of time. Music is the life for flesh and blood, it has cultural, social, and psychological value. There is no any culture without music, so, music is the magic of life. There are many sound format applied for multimedia. The AIFF, AU, MID, WAV, SND, and MPEG audio format are mostly applied for sound. AIFF is a native audio format for the Macintosh and AU is native format of Windows.


  • Movies: Movies is the most challenging multimedia content to deliver via web. The most popular video format is mov (or .QT) and avi. Without the talk of MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group), the multimedia is incomplete. It is a standard used to compress sound (audio) and videos for computer. It is named as MPEG-1, MPEG2, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 etc. QuickTime and MPEG are two of the most common cross platform movies format currently used for multimedia.


—>> Hypertext and Hypermedia


Hypertext and hypermedia are foundation technologies for multimedia presentations. Hypertext is a methodology for the construction and interactive use of text database. By definition, hypertext contains only text and limited amounts of graphics. Hypermedia is electronic documents that contain multiple forms of media, including text, graphics, video, and so on. A hypertext or hypermedia document is a body of text of any size in electronic form that is indexed so that it can quickly searched by the reader.

Hypertext and hypermedia are developed using specialized programming languages like Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which create hyperlinks to other parts of document, or to other documents and media.

The hyper (the meaning of hyper is over) link is a non-linear clicking text (hypertext) or graphics connected with other web documents. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson first time in 1965. We can say it is a jumping technique from one document to others. The browser displays hyperlink in the form of highlighted and underline text. It is an interactive text of contents. The term hypermedia is also very common among web users. The hypermedia is a link of graphics, movies, and sound.


Authoring tools


The authoring tools are multimedia tools used to combine all the elements of multimedia in a single bundle in the form of project. The Adobe Photoshop, CorelDraw, Macromedia Freehand, Macromedia Flash, Macromedia Director, Cool 3D, Vertigo(3DHotText) etc are authoring tools. The light weighted flash multimedia is very popular for web designing.


Hardware requirement:


  • Intel Pentium Processor-1 or above
  • 32MB RAM or more
  • 4GB Hard disk or more
  • Sound card and external speaker
  • SVGA

The creative sound blaster 16 bits is proved as revolutionary steps in the world of multimedia and computer become more popular than Television sets.


—>> Some terms related with multimedia:


(a) Cel Animation: The animation, in which sequence of pictures drawn on celluloid are used is called cel animation. In cel animation, each picture of animation is called frame and 24 frames are passed in one second for animation. This technique is applied by Disney for cartoon films. In Macromedia products, these two terms are very common:

(i) Key Frame: The first and last frame of sequence is termed as key frames.

(ii) Tweening: The tweening is a process of smoothening between two key frames for action or effect.


(b) Kinematics: The kinematics is a physiology and anatomy of organisms which deals with change in pose and postures, change in muscles, joints and its angle at the time of movement etc are core materials of kinematics. As a multimedia artist, the knowledge of kinematics is required for animation. There are many software available to give touch of kinematics.


Fractal Design’s Poser is a 3D modeling program which has facilities to add action in male, female, infant and others on the basis of muscular movement.


(c) Morphing: The art of transforming image of one form into other form is called morphing. We can understand it like as magic lamp of Alluding, in which lam is transformed into monster. You draw one straight line in nay graphics package and convert it into wavy lines, circle into elliptical etc. The morphing is tool of animation, it is used in kinematics to change appearance of image according to motion. Human Software’s Squizz, Image Ware’s Morph Wizard, Meta Tools’ Digital Morph, North Coast’s PhotoMorph etc have morphing tools. These tools help animation artist to morph image in fraction of seconds.

You can build your career as an animation artist in any advertisement company, film industries, CD designing company, but knowledge of drawing, colors, and creativity are primary qualifications. The knowledge of graphics software, multimedia-authoring tools etc are required.

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