Priority Scheduling

Priority scheduling
Each process in the system if given a priority, then the scheduling must be done according to the priority of each process. A higher priority job should get CPU whereas lower priority job can be made to wait. Priority scheduling is necessarily a form of preemptive scheduling where priority is the basic of preemption.
Let us consider a set of processes P1, P2, P3 having priorities ranging from 1 to 3. Let us assume that 1 is the highest priority whereas 3 is the least priority. Let us also assume that p1 arrive first and P3 arrives in the last.

process CPU Burst Time Priority Arrival
p1 10 3 0
p2 5 2 1
p3 2 1 2

The Gantt chart is shown below:

priority scheduling

priority scheduling

Waiting time foe P1= o+ (8-1) =7

Waiting time for P2= 1+ (4-2) =3

Waiting time for P3 = 2

Average Waiting Time = (7+3+2) / 3 = 4 Millisecond

Here, the preemption is based on the priority when P1 execute, P2 arrive with priority 2, which is higher than priority 3 of P1, and thus P1 is preempted. Similarly when P2 execute, P3 arrive with Priority 1 which is the highest priority and thus P2 is preempted and soon.

The main question arise here is if two processes have been assigned same priorities. Priority may be assigned by user or by the operating system depending upon the important of process. In that case comparison will be done with their CPU burst time. The process with short CPU burst time will be executed first.

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